Solar Energy Systems

The sun is what that bathes Earth in ample energy to fulfill all the world's power needs many times over. It doesn't give off carbon dioxide emissions. It won't run out. And it's free. So, This might be the perfect solution what human race is looking around for years as a replacement of conventional energy sources i.e. Fossil fuels. The sun's light contains energy in form of photon packets. Usually, when light hits an object the energy turns into heat, like the warmth we feel while sitting in the sun. But when light hits certain materials the energy turns into an electrical current instead, which we can then harness for power.
Thus, for such solar technology we use large crystals made out of silicon specially designed and cut down in specific size wafers to form a PV panel, which produces an electrical current when struck by light. In a crystal, the bonds between silicon atoms are made of electrons that are shared between all of the atoms of the crystal. The light gets absorbed, and one of the electrons that's in one of the bonds gets excited up to a higher energy level and can move around more freely than when it was bound. That electron can then move around the crystal freely, and we can get a current. Silicon can do this because the electrons in the crystal get up and move when exposed to light instead of just jiggling in place to make heat. The silicon turns a good portion of light energy into electricity, but it is expensive because big crystals are hard to grow.
Newer materials use smaller, cheaper crystals, such as copper, indium and gallium. This can be shaped into flexible films. This "thin-film" solar technology, however, is not as good as silicon at turning light into electricity.
The sun is what that bathes Earth in ample energy to fulfill all the world's power needs many times over. It doesn't give off carbon dioxide emissions. It won't run out. And it's free. So, This might be the perfect solution what human race is looking around for years as a replacement of conventional energy sources i.e. Fossil fuels. The sun's light contains energy in form of photon packets. Usually, when light hits an object the energy turns into heat, like the warmth we feel while sitting in the sun. But when light hits certain materials the energy turns into an electrical current instead, which we can then harness for power.
Thus, for such solar technology we use large crystals made out of silicon specially designed and cut down in specific size wafers to form a PV panel, which produces an electrical current when struck by light. In a crystal, the bonds between silicon atoms are made of electrons that are shared between all of the atoms of the crystal. The light gets absorbed, and one of the electrons that's in one of the bonds gets excited up to a higher energy level and can move around more freely than when it was bound. That electron can then move around the crystal freely, and we can get a current. Silicon can do this because the electrons in the crystal get up and move when exposed to light instead of just jiggling in place to make heat. The silicon turns a good portion of light energy into electricity, but it is expensive because big crystals are hard to grow.
Newer materials use smaller, cheaper crystals, such as copper, indium and gallium. This can be shaped into flexible films. This "thin-film" solar technology, however, is not as good as silicon at turning light into electricity.
Types:
Solar Panels can be found of many different types:
1st Gen.: Traditional Types
  • Mono-crystalline Solar Panels (Mono-SI)
  • Poly-crystalline Solar Panels (Poly-SI)

2nd Gen: Thin Film Solar cells
  • Thin-Film Solar Cells (TFSC)
  • Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell (A-Si)

3rd Gen.: Advanced thin film technology
  • Biohybrid Solar Cell
  • Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell (CdTe)
  • Concentrated PV Cell (CVP and HCVP)
But most common use of solar cells are in the form of Mono-Crystalline,
Poly-Crystalline and Thin Films, other are still in their development phase where further improvement is required.

Mono-crystalline Silicon PV (mono-silicon or single silicon)


They are commonly used and can be applied to both residential and commercial installations, ideal for both large and smaller scale systems. These types of cells use very pure silicon and involve a complicated crystal growth process. Long silicon rods are produced and the crystal is then cut into thin slices – individual cells that are wired together to form a panel. Mono-crystaline are the most efficient type of photovoltaic cells (14-19% efficiency level), but also the most expensive due to their high silicon content and take more energy to use. They are ideal for smaller surface areas in order to optimize roof space, because of their efficiency you don’t need as many panels.

Poly-crystalline Silicon PV (multi-crystalline, multi-silicon, ribbon)


Polycrystalline silicon is a commonly used type of panel for both residential and commercial installations. They are produced from silicon using an elaborate casting proves. Large blocks with a bunch of irregular multi-crystal or ‘polycrystalline’ are used. These crystals are sliced into wafers and woven together giving them that striking blue shattered glass appearance, which is due to the anti-reflective layer which is applied to the cells, it increases their efficiency. Due to their slightly lower levels of efficiency (13-17% efficiency level) and lower silicon levels they are less expensive. Polycrystalline PV cells are most appropriate when larger surface areas are available to lessen the cost of the installation.

Thin-Film Silicon PV


If you are looking for a less expensive option, you might want to look into thin-film. Thin-film solar panels are manufactured by placing one or more films of photovoltaic material (such as silicon, cadmium or copper) onto a substrate. These types of solar panels are the easiest to produce and economies of scale make them cheaper than the alternatives due to less material being needed for its production.
They are also flexible, which opens a lot of opportunities for alternative applications, and is less affected by high temperatures. The main issue is that they take up a lot of space, generally making them unsuitable for residential installations. Moreover, they carry the shortest warranties because their lifespan is shorter than the mono- and polycrystalline types of solar panels. However, they can be a good option to choose among the different types of solar panels where a lot of space is available.